Wednesday, March 25, 2020


THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE Essay Motivation can be a key-contributing factor in employee performance. It is of great importance to an organization to recognize ways in which it can use employee motivation to positively affect employee performance. The methods used by organizations to motivate its employees are essential in determining how they affect employee performance. There are both positive and negative motivational tools that may be explored. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between motivation and employee performance. Motivation is generally defined as the psychological forces that determine the irection of a persons level of effort, as well as a persons persistence in the face of obstacles. When a person has an increased level of effort and persistence in the workplace they tend to be highly motivated and this more often leads to a higher level of performance. However, the reason for an employees motivation may not necessarily be attributed to the organization. It is possible for an employee who is highly motivated to have low performance and the opposite for a lower motivated employee to have high performance. Although possible, most research studies show higher correlation between higher motivation and higher employee performance. There are both positive motivators and negative motivators that can be utilized by the organization. Positive motivators as employed by organizations may include employee benefits such as increased compensation, bonuses, stock options, profit sharing and other such rewards. Employees may be motivated by both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Intrinsic rewards may be the ability to work autonomously, acknowledgement, and an interest in the type of work they are doing. Extrinsic rewards may be employee recognition, monetary benefits, and other such material rewards. Negative motivators may include a bad performance review, verbal and written warnings, suspension, and termination warnings. An employer may use these various methods in which to motivate its employees. Performance is an evaluation of the results of a persons behavior: It involves determining how well or poorly a person has accomplished a task or done a Job. High employee performance leads to greater organizational success. We will write a custom essay sample on THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer In order for an rganization to try to acquire higher levels of employee performance via increased employee motivation they must have a strategy to do so effectively. The strategy must ultimately focus on achieving organizational goals while maintaining ways in which to influence motivation, which then inspires employee performance. From the organizational standpoint, there are key factors that impact motivation and its effect on employee performance. One such factor is setting goals for employees that incorporate the vision of the organization. When goals are set for the employee t provides an incentive for the employee and also benefits the organization upon completion relatlve to tne organlzatlons goals as well. Anotner Tactor Is employee engagement. Employee engagement and input allows for a level of commitment from the employee and may serve as an organizations way to be in tune with employee concerns. It is also extremely important to recognize the treatment of employees as a factor of motivating employees and their performance. Employees that are treated well by their organization in turn feel that they are a valued member of the team and ssentially its employer. This contributes to the level of trust that the employee has in the organization and can positively impact how well they perform for the company. Also, it is important to have a clear sense of leadership demonstrated for employees so that they are able to learn from these qualities displayed by successful leaders in the organization. Great leadership helps to motivate employees to perform at high levels and achieve organizational goals, which provide employees with the opportunity to develop within the organization. There are several theories based on motivation provide support for the relationship between motivation and performance. These theories include: Expectancy Theory, MasloWs Hierarchy of Needs, Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Theory, McClellands Needs for Achievement, Affiliation and Power, Equity Theory and Goal-setting Theory. Expectancy theory suggests that motivation is high when employees believe that high levels of effort lead to high performance and high performance leads to attaining desired outcomes. MasloWs Hierarchy of Needs says that five basic needs must be et by people in the order from bottom to top with each higher level upward leading to motivated behavior. Herzbergs Motivator-Hygiene Theory focuses of two factors attributed to the workplace: 1) meeting basic expectations 2) leading to increased performance. McClellands Needs for Achievement, Affiliation, and Power identifies three needs for a person 1) achievement 2) affiliation 3) power; of which all three pertain to a persons desire to perform well, have positive interpersonal relationships, and the desire to influence others. The Equity Theory is ones perception of fairness elative to their work outcomes and work inputs. Goal-setting Theory focuses on motivation of workers in order to contribute to overall performance of organization based on goals set. All these theories provide explored background information for employee motivation and its relationship to performance. An employees performance isnt solely based on the level of motivation but has an enormous amount of potential to have the greatest influence. There has been consistent empirical evidence to suggest that motivated employees means better performance. Due to motivation being linked to employee engagement, satisfaction, commitment, and an employees intention to quit, it can be said that these major factors also contribute to performance. Their contribution to an employees performance can be directly linked therefore the way in which they serve as components of motivation shows linkage to employee performance. These indicators play a major role in an employees overall performance. An organization and its managements focus through the utilization of employing ways in which to motivate its employees as a performance enhancement should be a rlmary Tocus. I nere are countless ways In wnlcn tney are aDle to ao so ranging from both extrinsic and intrinsic rewards and employee recognition. However, these are valuable for leaders and their organization to know and actively participate in these activities as the idea of motivating employees is not only of beneficial importance to employees but also to an increased level of performance for company employees and the overall organization. Bibliography Motivation in Todays Workplace: The Link to Performance, SHRM Research Quarterly: Second Quarter-2010 http://www. hrm. org/research/articles/articles/ Owen E. Richason IV, Motivation Employee Performance, Small Business Houston Chronicle http://smallbusiness. chron. com/motivation-employee- performance-1964. html George, Jones. Understanding and Managing Organizational Behavior Sixth Edition. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education Inc. , publishing as Prentice Hall, 2012. Nohria, Groysberg, Lee, Employee Motivation: A Powerful New Model, Harvard Business Review http://hbr. org/2008/07/employee-motivation-a-powerful-new-model/ aril

Friday, March 6, 2020

The Khajuraho temples Essays

The Khajuraho temples Essays The Khajuraho temples Essay The Khajuraho temples Essay Executive Summary India is celebrated for its great ethnicity and diverseness among the civilizations and these two chief elements reflect in the degree of touristry development in any part of the state. Apparently this has led the authorities and other several governments of touristry to name out the importance of heritage touristry in this twenty-first century. This study is based on the issues and impacts of touristry in Khajuraho, a UNESCO listed universe heritage site, celebrated for its alien graven temples. Khajuraho is a located in a cardinal province of India, and one of the oldest heritage sites in the universe. The temples were built a thousand old ages ago and still they stand dazing with all the ancient glorification. The touristry development in the country has changed many characteristics of the finish and there has been some issues sing the degree of touristry. The topographic point was found merely in the early decennaries of twentieth century and even from that clip Khajuraho still took so many decennaries to be printed in the universe celebrated heritage sites. The basic purpose of this study is to place the touristry developments and impacts of touristry in the selected touristry site and it is structured by get downing with a concise glance about the finish and followed by explicating the touristry developments in the country, discoursing the influences of touristry and its impacts among locals and suggestions to better the pattern of touristry followed by a decision which will sum up the overall study and research conducted. Background of the survey India is a big state with immense figure of population and great Numberss of both cultural and heritage musca volitanss. This exclusivity has made the county, a universe celebrated touristry finish in the planetary touristry map and regarded as a state, celebrated for its great cultural diverseness. Many of these heritage sites are secured by UNESCO- and are still endeavoring to happen a topographic point in their finish list. Ethnicity and diverseness are the two chief cardinal elements of Indian cultural Heritage touristry, and it is truly hard to concentrate on the whole state s touristry development and the impacts being confronting presently. To understand the effects of touristry on civilization, environment and economic system it was hence, I decided that this survey should look farther deep into the bosom of the state s heritage musca volitanss which are normally unknown for its ain patriots but comparatively known by other parts of the universe. Khajuraho, a universe heritage touristry site in the Central Indian State of Madhya Pradesh was chosen and examined to joint the nature and dimensions of some of the common issues from the impacts of local and international touristry. The survey stuffs used chiefly are dependable beginnings from the cyberspace and besides referred to the theories used in the touristry industry by associating to some of the instance surveies conducted in the subjected finish. Furthermore some parts of the study will be reflecting from my personal experience in the finish. The facts and figures received from the Indian authorities touristry web site back up and gives an overall glance of the importance of international touristry happening in that topographic point. Khajuraho: A mirror of Indian Heritage Khajuraho, a Central Indian State of Madhya Pradesh is universe celebrated for its UNESCO recognized heritage sites and patterns great heritage touristry. The site is good known for its imposing temples by reflecting the beauty of antique sculptures and constructions carved in immense individual sand rocks ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) .These temples, mirroring the sensuous images of both work forces and adult females besides lead to cast some visible radiations on the medieval Hindu and Jain civilizations The history of temples in Khajuraho small town is believed to be dated back to a thousand old ages ago, erected by the great Chandela Rajput Dynasty of Central India, by taking a century to construct more than 85 glorious temples with richly carved alone and brilliant sculptures. ( Gill, 2008 ) .During the depredation of clip merely 22 are managed to last and they stand still naming out the glorification of mediaeval architectural Masterss. Some of the temples are sculptured with luring titillating constructions stand foring the Tantric Vedas which the people in the small town used to pattern. The other Tourism activities include Khajuraho Dance Festival, organized every twelvemonth in the month of February or March for one hebdomad and the Daily Sound A ; Light Show ( ( Khajuraho, n.d. ) . Table-1 shows some general Information about Khajuraho ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) Degree of touristry development Ever since the airdrome is opened, a day-to-day flight operated from Delhi, the capital metropolis of India connected Khajuraho with some other celebrated finishs. These made the visitants to make at that place without any incommodiousness and besides the land transit installations improved, while linking to nearby of import towns and railroad station by running daily trips to Khajuraho. The chief important alterations in the degree of touristry happened was the creative activity of a Master Plan to steer the growing of Khajuraho and the establishment of the Khajuraho Dance Festival, a successful event that has, to some extent given Khajuraho a classical image ( Menon,1993 ) . What was Khajuraho before Khajuraho or the ancient name Khajurapura is believed to be derived from the word Khajurvahila intending the garden of day of the months surrounded the small town at that clip ( Krishnamurthy, 1996 ) . Deserted after the fourteenth century, the country was wholly unknown to outside universe until it was discovered by a immature British Army officer T.S. Burt in 1838 ( Menon, 1993 ) . Harmonizing the Ministry of Tourism, ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) after the bend down of the Chandela dynasty in the thirteenth century, the temples were hidden from outside universe by dense woods and shrubs about. Cipher knew the prototype of Indian Architecture was decreasing lingering in the violent disorder of clip. Many of the constructions were destroyed by conditions, the inanition and laxness of environing universe. But this concealed individuality must hold saved the staying temples from the early Muslim invasions in the yesteryear ( Hegewald A ; Mitra, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to Menon ( 1993 ) the temples were unknown to the universe until 1950 s and it was merely the foreign journalists and lensmans who published the exposure to the unfastened universe. The topographic point was opened to the tourers merely a few decennaries after the Independence of India from British in 1947 after constructing adequate installations for transit to acquire at that place. Changes after the touristry developments Today, Khajuraho is a flourishing tourer topographic point for both domestic and international travellers. The substructure is modified significantly by the authorities to the demands of thirsting travellers, as the old ages base on balls by. Harmonizing to ( UNESCO, 2005 ) few modest hotels were built in the early 1960ss to pull aliens and domestic tourers and the figure of people coming to see Khajuraho has changed dramatically of all time since the airdrome was built as the surface transit was non convenient plenty. The draft Development Plan produced by Indian Government in 1975 is besides guided consequent development of the country ( Menon, 1993 ) . Now the old small town of Khajuraho is changed perfectly into a topographic point with a figure of 8 star hotels including 2 five star ironss attached hotels and other budgeted hotels besides, in an country of merely few kilometres ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) equipped wi th efficient roads entree, other transit and adjustment installations. Subsequently countries around Khajuraho have besides flourished and harvested the benefits from these touristry developments. Tourist profile There have been a batch of alterations happened during the last few decennaries and this has led to hold a important alteration in the demographics of travellers geting in Khajuraho. Menon ( 1993 ) stated that a few decennaries back, the foreign tourers sing Khajuraho comprised 3.3 % of entire figure of visitants to India and most of the tourers were independent and included in low budget class, half of the group tourers who visited India visited Khajuraho besides . The statistics published by the authorities a few old ages back, shows the enormous hiking in the figure of tourers visited the finish and it gives a limpid thought about the enlargement of the Khajuraho touristry programs ( Menon, 1993 ) The figure of people visited in the early 80 s were higher than in early 90 s in the domestic travellers as it is believed to be the ground of political instability at that clip. But the figure of foreign travellers remained changeless between these periods. Table 2 shows that entire Numberss of tourers in 1985-1986 were about 203,646, but in the early 90 s it was decreased to 151,350. ( Appendix I-IV ) There is a important per centum of addition in the figure of foreign visitants to Khajuraho in the current decennary about double the Numberss in old decennaries while the figure of domestic tourers remained changeless seemingly. This increasing figure of tourers chiefly depends on the degree of publicities of the finish or and the transit installations. Driving force It is non merely merely some sandstone structures to see in Khajuraho, but it is the picturesque word picture of mediaeval being of small town people ruled under the great Chandela male monarchs portrayed by the master of rock architecture about a millenary ago. It is the thrusting force of quaint beauty to take the travellers to Khajuraho from around the universe. The chief motive of going to Khajuraho is the luster of these sculptures in the temples. The authorities touristry board and other touristry bureaus have recognized the demand for touristry in the part and offer assorted touristry bundles including the nearby metropoliss of Khajuraho. It is another value added benefit for the travellers and a motivation to see Khajuraho. Although it is an icon of Heritage Tourism, the titillating sculptures, exemplifying the tantric humanistic disciplines in the sandstones attract many of the tourers from around the universe. Rise in the economy- A positive impact Though there are many identified impacts of touristry in Khajuraho, the most important one is the rise in the entire economic system, as the degree of touristry in the finish parts a major portion in the entire figure of foreign tourer flow into the state ( Appendix V ) As a consequence of touristry development plans which finally offered more than 3,000 occupation offers to the local community made the position of life style to travel up resourcefully as there was important growing in instruction and wellness attention systems. The other noticed consequences are in the local handcraft industry and the offering of big graduated table indirect employment in other sectors particularly in the agriculture ( UNESCO, 2005 ) . The development of touristry in the part have besides reduced the degree of poorness than the adjacent small towns as this mass touristry has helped the local people to indulge in increasing their personal income through assorted touristry activities. All those betterments in the public public-service corporation substructures and conveyance substructures in Khajuraho show the positive economical impacts and it has been forecasted to do a dramatic alteration in the future figure of tourers ( In 2015, anticipating 1,00,965 domestic to urers and 8,59,701 foreign tourers with a entire figure of 19,60,666 ) Appendix-VI Negative economic impact The degree of touristry has made some negative impacts in the local economic system to a certain degree, particularly the development plans by the authorities which brought many foreigners into the small town economic system. Alternatively of utilizing the natural resources, things are being imported from outside by the migrators. Most of the imported goods are manipulated as local art work and being sold to the tourers which is a escape in the integrating of locals and the authorities systems ( Menon, 1993 ) . Furthermore, the rising prices has increased due to the less supply for the high demand for local points caused by the touristry development plan. Harmonizing to Menon, ( 1993, p.37 ) a local usher explains that 20 old ages ago people were friendlier and shut together: touristry, he said, has made the people money-minded . Positive Environmental impact The natural state shrouded temples are titivated by the authorities by the degree of touristry in Khajuraho. Harmonizing to UNESCO, ( 2005 ) the topographic point is now equipped with complete substructure including transit, electricity, H2O supply, hotels and infirmaries. The temples are now protected by the Indian Central Government with the aid of archaeological and touristry sections to continue the Indian heritage, as they are wall protected by the security systems in order to avoid interlopers and hooliganisms. Now the temples are surrounded by gardens which are non genuinely, a portion of original temple designs, to heighten the beauty of temple premises. Apart from that, a cardinal museum is located in the small town to maintain the valuable broken parts from the temples and demo instance the antediluvian graphics to the visitants and the digging countries are restricted for public.One can clearly see that the old sleepy image of Khajuraho is wholly changed by the alterations happened in the environment due to the touristry ( Menon, 1993 ) . Negative Environmental impact Due to the features of the finish, Khajuraho poses really less damaging consequence on the physical environment as the tourers who visit are peculiar nature of excursionist activity and their primary purpose is merely to see the sculptures in the temples ( Menon, 1993 ) . Thus rate of losing the natural resources will be really less in the part comparing some other tourer finishs, nevertheless the mass sum of tourer flow into Khajuraho must hold changed the environment negatively due to the air pollution and solid wastes disposal. Furthermore the devastation of alone vegetations and zoologies in the country, due to the digging work go oning nearby the temples reduced the wild life in the encompassing part. The other considerable negative impacts are the air pollution caused by the aircrafts winging. A survey conducted by Indian cardinal archeological section found out that aircrafts winging over the temples produce a certain degree of quivers which could damage ancient memorials ( Ar chaeological Survey of India, n.d ) Harmonizing to a monthly societal consciousness magazine ( Khajuraho Special, 2004 ) land pollution and air pollution are some of the major environmental issues in Khajuraho faced by touristry. None of the hotels in Khajuraho have proper waste direction system or recycling system which persuade them to litter openly and so make the tourers, particularly the canned nutrients and other disposable points. In the same manner, increasing figure in touristry has caused the same figure in vehicles for transit which pollutes the air by breathing unsafe gases and doing to alter the atmospheric temperature. The concluding idea is about the shrinkage of H2O organic structures in the country, where the improper land use reduced the natural H2O resources drastically. Positive socio-cultural impact The life style in Khajuraho is being affected by touristry activities as a natural effect of socio-cultural impact. Peoples have been more cognizant of the touristry demands and other civilizations, to mix with other nationalities cleanly. The dance festivals and other cultural activities unite the local community and besides portray the true image of Khajuraho to tourers. It has been proved that there has nt been any ailment of sexual torment or harlotry, which shows that the local community is more antiphonal about societal norms ( Menon, 1993 ) and some of the local people have managed to do matrimony relationship with aliens. After all, some of the local community still indulge in their day-to-day supplications and travel to the temples for idolizing which point towards the painstaking touristry in the country. Negative socio-cultural impact The migration and colony of foreigners have changed Khajuraho societal and cultural environment, as now the local populations is dwelling of assorted cultural groups who drifted to do concern via touristry. The local linguistic communication spoken is really less in Khajuraho as bulk of people populating in Khajuraho are nonnative. From my personal experience in Khajuraho, what I could see chiefly was the kids and immature people are following the way of touristry to do money easy instead than traveling to schools and colleges. Most of them are grabbed by travel agents to go ushers and receive committee from them. Ultimately touristry has brought in these multi cultural societies who sell the true art for money into Khajuraho and interrupt the unity of local civilization. Recommendations and concluding ideas The promotional stuff and the information available to the tourers, cut down Khajuraho to a single-issue finish Menon ( 1993 ) . This image of Khajuraho is more likely a individual point finish where the touristry is merely focused on the animal sculptures in the temples. Alternatively of publicising the true illustration, the tourers are falsified by the travel agent Mafias which make them to take pleasance in the titillating portion of the heritage art worked temples alternatively of understanding the true rules of an ancient civilisation existed at that place. Hence the authorities should be more responsible to halt these deceptive by set uping illustrations such as supplying proper touristry selling runs, consciousness seminars and cultured steering system. Alternatively of concentrating merely on the temples, touristry board should take manus in developing the locality and adjacent vicinity as they are still under poorness and the wildlife around Khajuraho still remains unguar ded though it is reserved. Over the past old ages Asiatic states have on looked unbelievable societal, cultural, political and technological alterations ( Pandey, Chettri, Kunwar and Ghimire, 1995 ) .These important alterations have been received by the far-fetched development of touristry in the subjected states. Despite the fact that touristry fosters the national economic system to a certain extent, it has definite impacts on state s edifying ethnicity and bequest while go forthing the natural ownerships to an economic point of trade for income. Harmonizing to Bandyopadhyay, Morais, Chick ( 2008, p.791 ) , Tourism is non merely an sum of simply commercial activities ; it is besides an ideological framing of history, nature and tradition ; a framing that has the power to reshape civilization and nature to its ain demands. It is evident from this study that, these factors have surely affected either positively or negatively on the values of economic, environmental and socio cultural in Khajuraho. The concl uding say is touristry in Khajuraho has fostered over the old ages and it has changed many factors, it is the duty of each and every individual tourer who comes to see Khajuraho to pattern responsible touristry while mesmerized by the prehistoric sandstone sunglassess of ancient humanistic disciplines. Mentions Archaeological Survey of India. ( n.d ) . Periodic Reporting Exercise on the Application of the World Heritage Convention Section II: State of preservation of specific World Heritage belongingss. Retrieved March 27, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: // Bandyopadhyay, R. , Morais, D. , A ; Chick, G. ( 2008 ) . Religion and individuality in Indi s heritage touristry. Annalss of Tourism Research, 35 ( 3 ) , 790-808. Retrieved March 27, 2010, from the Sciencedirect database. Hegewald, J. , A ; Mitra, S. ( 2008 ) . Jagannatha Compared: The political relations of appropriation, re-use and regional traditions in India ( Working Paper No. 36 ) , South Asia Institute at the University of Heidelberg. Retrieved March 28, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: // Khajuraho Special. ( 2004, January ) . Monthly societal consciousness magazine. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: // Krishnamurthy, K. ( 1994 ) . A botanical history of Valmiki s pankavati. Indian Journal of History of Science, 31 ( 2 ) , 26. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: // Gill, C. ( 2008 ) . A Comparative Analysis of the Temples of Khajuraho and the Ruling Chandellas of India. Unpublished senior thesis. University of Wisconsin-La Crosse. USA Menon, K. ( 1993 ) . Case Study on the Effectss of Tourism on Culture and the Environment: India ; Jaisalmer, Khajuraho and Goa. RACAP Series on Culture and Tourism in Asia, 1, 99. Retrieved April 2, 2010, from the UNESCO database. Pandey, R. , Chetri, P. , Kunwar, R. , A ; Ghimire, G. ( 1995 ) . RACAP Series on Culture and Tourism in Asia. Case survey on the effects of touristry on civilization and the environment, 4, 66. Retrieved March 25, 2010, from hypertext transfer protocol: // UNESCO informations. ( 2005, November 21 ) . Major issues in touristry development in the Asiatic and Pacific part: Enhancing the function of touristry in socio-economic development and poorness decrease. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: // ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) Images Khajuraho temple. Retrieved March 25, 2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: // Map of India. Retrieved March 25, 2010 from hypertext transfer protocol: // Pic1- Khajuraho temple. Retrieved March 28, 2010from hypertext transfer protocol: // A ; t/m.p/kha/800px-Khajuraho-Lakshmana_temple % 5B1 % 5D.jpg Pic2- Location.Retrieved March 28, 2010from hypertext transfer protocol: // Pic3- Sculptures. Retrieved March 30, 2010from hypertext transfer protocol: // Khajuraho5.jpg Appendixs Appendix I- India Tourism Statistics 2006. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: // Appendix II India Tourism Statistics 2006. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: // Appendix III- Hotel Categories in India. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: // Appendix IV- India Tourism Statistics 2006. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: // Appendix V- Tourist Inflow. Retrieved from hypertext transfer protocol: // Appendix VI- Forecasted Tourist reaching in 2015 ( Assessment of demand of Hotel Room / Accommodation in Metro Cities 13and 50 major Tourist Centers in India. Retrieved from Ministry of Tourism, hypertext transfer protocol: // % 20- % 202008.pdf

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Egoism and relativism Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Egoism and relativism - Assignment Example as certainty associated with it because it promotes that individuals should take actions that provide the highest degree of happiness to oneself and the individual should try to avoid actions and decisions that result in unhappiness. The element of certainty exists because an individual can easily be sure about the elements and the outcomes that will make him or her happy and unhappy and thus can easily make decisions. For example: as an individual I may lie to another individual if I perceive that in a given situation lying will result in higher benefits to me as compared to costs. The main weakness associated with egoism is that it ignores the fact that other individuals within a society may end up being impacted negatively if an individual only makes decisions based on his/her self-interest. This means that egoism disregards the idea that those actions are ethical that result in benefiting the overall society and not just a few individuals within the society. For example: a stock exchange agent may lie to its clients that investing in a certain share will benefit them when actually it may result in losses. This means that the agent is hurting others by lying and only benefiting himself in terms of commission he earns from selling certain stocks. The theory of relativism states that actions as well as decisions that may be ethical for a particular society are not necessarily ethical for another society or group (Birsch 18). Relativists are of the position that no actions and decisions are universally ethical or unethical and vary in compliance from one society to another. One of the major strengths of relativism is that it promotes tolerance between different groups and well as different members of these groups (Birsch 28). The theory holds that one cannot simply reject the values of another society or culture if those values are conflicting with values of people from their own society. This in turns helps in ensuring that members from different societies

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Business Ethics Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Business Ethics - Case Study Example Pollution problems in Ohio valley are rooted in the year 1950 with the emerging of the Union Carbide which led to the building of several industries in the mountainous regions around the Ohio valley. Pollution problems started in 1951 (Hartley 1993. p. 31). Soot bad odour and ash were being emitted to the atmosphere causing massive of pollution. The neighboring population around the industrial area experienced the most suffering since most settlement were built on the valley. People were infected with respiratory disease among other dangerous illnesses. The Union carbine frustrated the people plead for the pollution content to be reduced. The National Air Pollution Control Administration tried to intervene in the situation by requesting the area to be inspected but the result of this was an ignorant response from the government. This portrays the level of corruption and unethical business environment in Ohio. Companies only focused on the profits and their business outcomes while neg lected the human environment in which the business directly affects. Business ethics advocate for healthy business environments which involves the relationship between the human and business environment. A healthy business environment is supposed to consider the economic, social and political environment. These are the entities that determine the prosperity of a business be it in the private or public sector. A good business is determined by the level of positive co-relation between these entity factors. Union carbine displays negative business ethics since it does not consider the help of the people living in the surrounding environment. In 1971, environmental reforms were structured which included the implementation of a number of pollution management measures. Union Carbide shut down one boiler and some workers lost their jobs as a result. This was considered as a form of retaliation to due to the new environmental reforms. This is unethical as it shows lack of consideration by t he company. Lockheed Corporation: Overseas Bribery Gone Rampant Corruption is one of the major attributes of unethical business. Corruption takes course in form of bribery of illegal tender allocation. Robert F. Hartley gives an overview of corruption cases and how they affect business ethics. Lockheed Corporation had tried to venture into several businesses but none of them turned out to be successful (Hartley 1993. p. 83). The company invested heavily in a number of businesses which all failed in the process before making any slight positive outcomes. Due to this, the company decided to switch to unethical form of business operation. Lockheed Corporation decided to extend their sales overseas in order to obtain more profits. This forced the company to make payoff in order to obtain contracts. Therefore it engaged in commodity trading with countries like Netherlands, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Italy, Iran and Spain. These resulted in the resignation of the company’s chairman. The reason to this was that the company went bankrupt under his leadership. Unethical business practices show a sense of unprofessionalism. The company board forced the manager to resign because he displayed unprofessional leadership skills at the time the company needed to progress and settle of its previous deficits. This also led to the creation of foreign corruption act in 1977. Robert F. Hartley

Monday, January 27, 2020

Sensing of Human Blood Group by SPR Based Sensors

Sensing of Human Blood Group by SPR Based Sensors Contents- Introduction Basic of Surface Plasmon P and S polarized light waves Properties of Surface Plasmon Waves Transverse Electric and Transverse Magnetic Waves Dispersion Relation for Surface Plasmon Principle Total Internal Reflection N-Layer Model and Fresnel’s Relation Evanescent Waves Resonance Condition Minimum of Reflectance at Resonance Drude Model For free electron gas Angular Interrogation and Wavelength Interrogation Performance parameters for SPR based sensors Experiment Kretscheman and Otto Configuration Coating of metal layer by Vacuum Coating Machine Basic Of Surface Plasmons- The electron charges on a metal boundary can perform coherent fluctuations hence collective charge density oscillations of electrons at metal-dielectric interface are known as plasma oscillations and the quantum of these oscillations are known as surface plasmons. The surface plasmons are accompanied by a longitudinal (TM- or P-polarized) electric field which decays exponentially in metal as well as in dielectric medium. The electric field has its maximum at metal-dielectric interface. The TM- polarization and exponential decay of electric field are found by solving the Maxwell equation. The charge motion in a surface plasmon always creates electromagnetic fields outside (as well as inside) the metal. The total excitation, including both the charge motion and associated electromagnetic field, is called either surface plasmon polaritonat a planar interface. . Properties of Surface Plasmon Waves- Surface Plasmon waves are the surface localized electromagnetic waves produced by the collective resonating oscillations of free electrons on the plasma surface. The surface Plasmon is a transverse wave propagating along the plasma surface with the oscillating electric field vector normal to the surface. The two main properties of the surface Plasmon waves are firstly they are of exponentially decaying nature, when propagate along the surface of metal-dielecric interface it gets decay both in metal as well as in dielectric and secondly it gets excited only by P-polarized incident light wave. P-polarized and S-polarized light waves- When the electric field vector of incident light wave is perpendicular to the plane of incidence than light wave is called S-polarized light wave and when the electric field vector are parallel to plane of incidence than light wave is called P-polarized light wave. Transverse Electric and Transverse Magnetic Waves If the incident, transmitted and reflected waves all have a wave vector component along the z direction, that is, they have an effective velocity along z. The fields Ei,perp, Er,perp, and Et,perp are all perpendicular to the z direction. These waves are called transverse electric field (TE) waves. On the other hand, waves with Ei,//, Er,//, and Et,// only have their magnetic field components perpendicular to the z direction and these are called transverse magnetic field (TM) waves. Dispersion Relation for Surface Plasmon- Principle Total internal reflection- Internal Reflectionis a phenomenon that happens when a propagatingwave strikes a medium boundary at an angle larger than a particular critical anglewith respect to thenormalto the surface. If the refractive indexis lower on the other side of the boundary and the incident angle is greater than the critical angle, the wave cannot pass through and is entirelyreflected. The critical angleis theangle of incidenceabove which the total internal reflectance occurs. This is particularly common as anoptical phenomenon, where light waves are involved, but it occurs with many types of waves, such aselectromagnetic wavesin general orsound waves. When a wave crosses a boundary between materials with different kinds of refractive indices, the wave will be partiallyrefractedat the boundary surface, and partially reflected. However, if the angle of incidence is greater (i.e. the direction of propagation or ray is closer to being parallel to the boundary) than the critical angle – the angle of incidence at which light is refracted such that it travels along the boundary – then the wave will not cross the boundary and instead be totally reflected back internally. This can only occur when the wave in a medium with a higher refractive index (n1) hits its surface thats in contact with a medium of lower refractive index (n2). For example, it will occur with light hittingairfrom glass, but not when hitting glass from air. Fresnel’s Relation We will describe the incident, reflected and refracted waves by the exponential representation of a travelling wave, i.e., Where r is theposition vector, the wavevectors ki, kr, kt describe respectively the derictions of the incident, reflected and transmitted waves and Eio, Ero and Eto are the respective amplitudes. Any phase changes such as phir and phit in the reflected and transmitted waves with respect to the phase of the incident wave are incorporated into the complex amplitudes Ero and Eto. Our objective is to find Ero and Eto with respect to Eio. Similar equations can be stated for the magnetic field components in the incident, reflected and transmitted waves but will be perpendicular to the corresponding electric fields. The electric and magnetic fields anywhere on the wave must be perpendicular to each other as a requirement of electromagnetic wave theary. This means that with E// in the EM wave we have a magnetic field Bperp associated with it such that Bperp= (n/c)E//. Simillarly, Eperp will have a magnetic field B// associated with it such that B//=(n/c)Eperp. There are two useful fundamental rules in electromagnetism that govern the behaviour of the electric and magnetic fields at a boundary between two dielectric media which we can arbitrary label as 1 and 2. These rules are called boundary conditions. The first states that the electric field that is tangential to the boundary surface Etangential must be continuous across the boundary from medium 1 to 2 i.e., at the boundary y=0. Etangential(1)=Etangential(2) The second rule is that the tangential component of the magnetic field Btangential to boundary must be likewise continuous from medium 1 to 2 provided that the two media are non-magnetic (relative permeability  µr=1), Btangential(1)=Btangential(2) Using these boundary conditions for the fields at y=0, and the relationship between the electric and magnetic fields, we can find the reflected and transmitted waves in terms of the incident wave. The boundary conditions can only be satisfied if the reflection and incidence angles are equal, @[emailprotected], and the angles for the transmited and incident waves obey Snell’s [emailprotected][emailprotected] Applying the boundary conditions to the EM wave going from medium 1 to medium 2, the amplitudes of the reflected and transmitted waves can be readily obtained in terms of n1, n2, and incidence angle @i alone. These relationships are called Fresnel’s equations. If we define n=n2/n1, as the relative refractive index of medium 2 to that of 1, then the reflection and transmission coefficients for Eperp are Rperp And Tperp These are corresponding coefficients for the E// fields with corresponding reflection and transmission coefficients r// and t//: r// t// Further, the reflection and transmission coefficients are related by r// + nt// = 1 rperp +1 = tperp The significance of these equations is that they allow the amplitudes and phases of the reflected and transmitted waves to be determined from the coefficients rperp, r//, t//, and tperp. Evanescent waves- Evanescent waves are formed when sinusoidal waves are (internally) reflected off an interface at an angle greater than the critical angle so that total internal reflection occurs. Evanescent means tending to vanish, which is appropriate because the intensity of evanescent waves decays exponentially with distance from the interface at which they are formed. Any propagating wave is converted into an evanescent wave when hitting a classically forbidden region. In this case, at least one component of the wave vector kbecomes imaginary or complex and the wave experiences exponential damping when propagating in this region. In the case of an optical fibre the cladding has less refractive index than the core of the fibre. When light experience total internal reflection at the core-cladding interface, some of the energy of the light waves in the core of the fibre penetrate into the cladding for a very short distance. The energy flow of this evanescent wave is parallel to the surface of the core and in the same direction as the main flow of energy within the core. Resonance Condition- The propagation constant (Ksp) Of the surface Plasmon wave propagating along the metal-dielectric interface is given by- Where ÃŽ µm and ÃŽ µs are the dielectric constants of metal and the dielectric medium respectively, ω is the frequency of incident light, and c is the velocity of light and from above equation it may be noted that the propagation constant of surface Plasmon wave depends on the dielectric constants of both the metal and the dielectric medium. The surface plasmons can be excited by light with same polarization state as that of surface Plasmons. The propagation constant (Ks) of the light wave with frequency w propagating through the dielectric medium is given by- Since ÃŽ µms>0 (for dielectric), for a given frequency, the propagation constant of surface Plasmon (Ksp) is greater than that of light wave in dielectric medium (Ks). To excite surface plasmons, two propagation wave- vectors should be equal. Hence, the direct light cannot excite surface plasmons at a metal-dielectric interface. To excite surface plasmons their momentum and hence the wave vector of the exciting light in dielectric medium should be increased. This can be done if instead of a direct light, evanescent wave is used to excite the surface plasmons. To obtain the evanescent wave for the excitation of surface plasmons, a prism with high dielectric constant is used. When a light beam is incident through one of the two sides of the prism at an angle greater than the critical angle at prism-air interface the total internal reflection of light beam takes place. In the condition of total internal reflection light beam does not return exactly from the interface. Instead it returns after penetrating in the lower refractive index medium (air in this case). The field in the lower refractive index medium is called evanescent field and the wave corresponding to this is called evanescent wave. The evanescent wave propagates along the prism-air interface and decays exponentially in the rarer medium (air). The propagation constant of the evanescent wave at prism-air interface is given by- Where, ÃŽ µp, represents the dielectric constant of the material of the prism and ÃŽ ¸ is the angle of incidence of the beam. Increase in the dielectric constant of the prism increases the propagation constant of the evanescent wave and hence this can be made equal to propagation constant of the surface Plasmon wave to propagation constant of the surface Plasmon wave to satisfy the surface Plasmon resonance condition. When a p-polarized light beam is incident through the prism on the prism-metal layer interface at an angle ÃŽ ¸ equal to or greater than the critical angle, the evanescent wave is produced at the prism-metal interface. The excitation of surface plasmons occurs when the wave vector of evanescent wave exactly matches with that of the surface plasmons of similar frequency. This occurs at a particular angle of incidence ÃŽ ¸res. Thus the resonance condition for surface Plasmon resonance is- The excitation of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interface results in the transfer of energy from incident light to surface plasmons, which reduces the intensity of the reflected light. If the intensity of the reflected light is measured as a function of angle of incidence ÃŽ ¸ for a fixed values of frequency, metal layer thickness and dielectric layer thickness then a sharp dip is observed at resonance angle, ÃŽ ¸res, due to an efficient transfer of energy to surface plasmons. Minimum of Reflectance at Resonance The excitation of surface plasmons at metal-dielectric interface results in the transfer of energy from incident photons to surface plasmons, which reduces the energy of the reflected light. If the normalized reflected intensity (R), which is basically the output signal, is measured as a function of incident angle @ by keeping other parameters and components (such as frequency, metal layer, and dielectric layer) unchanged, then a sharp dip is observed at resonance angle @sp due to an efficient transfer of energy to surface plasmons The minimum of the normalized reflected intensity (R) can be quantitatively described with the help of Fresnel’s equations for the three-layer system p/m/s. Here, p, stands for high refractive index material prism m, stands for metal film of thickness dm and s, stands for low index dielectric medium, eg: air, water etc. The light wave is incident at an angle greater than the corresponding ATR angle. At this point, one important fact is the energy conservation that requires R+A+T=1, that is, the sum of relative reflection, absorption, and transmission is unity. Since, T=0 at ATR, hence we are left with A+R=1 in the present case. The light wave having passed the glass prism (ÃŽ µp), is reflected partially at prism interface. A part of the incident light wave energy traverses the metal film(of thickness dm) as an exponential decaying evanescent wave. At the metal-dielectric (m/s) interface, it induces the surface Plasmon excitation, which radiate light back into the metal film. If the metal layer thickness (dm) is small, the back scattered field tends to increase. Since, this back scattered wave is out-of-phase with the incoming wave, the two interfere destructively and cause R to reduce. For minimum value of dm, they compensate each other and R becomes equal to zero. Thus, the absorption A becomes equal to 1, that is, whole radiation field is captured in the metal film. On the other hand, if the metal layer thickness is large enough, then the back scattered field disappears and R approaches to 1. It means that no absorption of incident light wave is taking place. Hence, one can say that the value of R depends on the combination of incident light frequency, angle of incidence, and the thickness of the metal layer. Performance parameters for SPR sensors Sensitivity and Detection accuracy are the two important parameters that are used to analyze the performance of SPR based sensors. Sensitivity- Suppose, we are sensing any medium of any particular refractive index, than we will get a minimum reflectance curve at any particular value of ÃŽ »res, but if change the medium than refractive index will change and we will get a minimum reflectance curve at any other value of ÃŽ »res, hence we can say the minimum reflectance curve is shifted from one wavelength value to another wavelength value. This shift in the minimum reflectance curve with the change in the refractive index (by changing the medium) is called sensitivity of the SPR sensor. Hence we can say, sensitivity is the rate of change of ÃŽ »res value with the change in refractive index, S= If the shift is large, the sensitivity is large Detection accuracy- How accurately and precisely our sensor can sense or detect this shift in minimum reflectance curve is called Detection Accuracy of the sensor DA= For the best performance of the sensor, both the parameters should be as high as possible to attain a perfect sensing procedure. Otto Configuration The general idea behind this configuration was the coupling of surface Plasmon wave the evanescent wave, which is set up to ATR at the base of a coupling prism when a light beam is incident at an angle greater than the critical angle (@ATR) at prism-air interface. The nature of evanescent wave is known to have the propagation constant along the interface and to decay exponentially in the dielectric medium adjacent to metal layer. Both of these characteristics of evanescent waveare similar to those of a surface Plasmon wave, therefore, there is a strong possibility of interaction between these waves. The x-component of the wave propagation constant of the evanescent wave at prism-air interface is given by Kev= If a metal surface is now brought in contact of this decaying evanescent field in such a way that an air gap remains between the prism base and metal layer, then the evanescent field at prism-air interface can excite the surface plasmons at the air-metal interface. However, this configuration is difficult to realize practically as the metal has to be brought within around 200 nm of the prism surface. This approach has been found to be very useful in studying single-crystal metal surfaces and adsorption on them. Kretschmann configuration As a significant improvement to Otto configuration, Kretschmann and Reather realized that the metal layer could be used as the spacing layer, that is, evanescent wave generated at the prism-metal layer interface can excite surface plasmons at the metal-air interface so long as the metal layer thickness is not too large. They devised a new configuration. In this configuration as well, surface plasmons are excited by an evanescent wave from a high refractive index glass prism at ATR condition. However, unlike Otto configuration, the base of the glass prism is coated with a thin metal film (typically around 50 nm thick) and is kept in direct contact with the dielectric medium of lower refractive index (such as air or some other dielectric sample).

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Stoichiometry of a Precipitation Reaction

|| || Data Tables: Step 3: Show the calculation of the needed amount of Na2CO3 Convert 1. 0g of CaCl2-. 2H2O to moles of CaCl2-. 2H2O 1. 0g x 1 mole CaCl2-. 2H2O 147. 0 g CaCl2-. 2H2O = 0. 00680 moles CaCl2-. 2H2O The mole ratio is 1:1 Hence if we have 0. 00680 moles of CaCl2-. 2H2O we will as well need 0. 00680 moles of Na-2CO3 Convert moles of Na-2CO3 to grams of Na2CO3 = 0. 00680 moles Na-2CO3 x 105. 99g Na-2CO3 1 mole Na-2CO3 = 0. 72g This means that we need 0. 72g of Na-2CO3 to fully react with 1g of CaCl2-. H2O Step 4: Mass of weighing dish_0. 7___g Mass of weighing dish and Na2CO3__1. 4__g Net mass of the Na2CO3 __0. 7__g Step 6: Mass of filter paper __0. 7__g Step 10: Mass of filter paper and dry calcium carbonate__1. 2__g Net mass of the dry calcium carbonate_0. 5___g (This is the actual yield) Step 11: Show the calculation of the theoretical yield of calcium carbonate. The mole ration between CaCl2-. 2H2O and CaCO3 is 1:1 that means that if we have 0. 00680 moles of CaCl2-. 2H2O we will get 0. 00680 moles CaCO3Convert the moles of CaCO3 to grams of CaCO3 = 0. 00680 moles CaCO3 x 100 g CaCO3 1 mole CaCO3 = 0. 68g CaCO3 Show the calculation of the percent yield. = Actual yield/Theoretical yield x 100 = 0. 5/0. 68 x 100 = 73. 5% Conclusion: The objective of the experiment is to predict the amount of product produced in a precipitation reaction using stoichiometry. Secondly, the experiment accurately measures the reactants and products of a reaction. Also, the experiment is to determine actual yield vs. theoretical yield and to calculate the percent yield.For example in this experiment, we were able to predict that we need 0. 72g of Na-2CO3 to fully react with 1g of CaCl2-. 2H2O. Another example is that, we calculate the amount of theoretical yield of Calcium Carbonate to be 0. 68g and the percentage yield to be 73. 5%. The scientific principles involved here was that when two or more soluble substances in separate solutions are mixed together to form an insoluble compound they settles of a combined solution as a solid. The solid insoluble compound is called a precipitate.For example in this experiment, we combined sodium carbonate and calcium chloride dehydrates to produce a precipitate of calcium carbonate. The formula mathematically is Na2CO3(aq) + CaCl2. 2H2– = CaCO3(s) + 2NaCl(aq) + 2H2O. Sources of Error and ways to minimize them: There may still be some solid particles in the beaker thereby we will not be able to get the correct mass (quantity) of the Calcium Carbonate. To minimize the error we should use an instrument that can be able to scoop out the entire solid from the beaker.Also if the water in the Calcium Carbonate is not properly dried, the net mass of the Calcium Carbonate can be extremely high. To solve this we must make sure the Calcium Carbonate is well dried. Error of approximation: the molar mass if not well approximated, can lead to an error in the calculation. To minimize this error the instruction sho uld indicate how many decimal point or how significant figure to approximate to. I am highly impressed with the experiment.

Friday, January 10, 2020

The Real Value of “E-Business Models”

Summary Note: The real value of â€Å"e-business models† Research Questions Asked * What is the meaning of e-business model? * Do the e-Business model really matter to create a thriving e-firm? * Can only a good e-business model will give the strength to company to get success? * What are the real key factors determining the survival or failure of e-firm? The e-business model is a model used by the e-commerce company to better be organized for providing a product or service, generating revenues and, especially, creating and adapting to the new market and technologies.Summary This article suggests in a critical way how this important model could be applied to different types of company, distinguishing the model by categories. It pays attention how the particular model is not the only successful key of the company, but it will an important tool if the company understands the linkage between it, its core business and the marketplace environment. The article presents some cases of failure and success, and how it creates a thriving for the firm. Supply chain model Direct sales: the firm provides a product or services directly to a customer ( Dell, Cisco, Aol) * Intermediary: the firm sells goods from a third party (Amazon) * Electronic marketplace: make easier the direct communication between buyers and sellers (Autobytel) Revenue model * Income is generated directly from the customer transaction * â€Å"Free sires where the income is generated through advertising or sponsorship (Napster) Internet business can also be distinguished according to the markets they serve * B2B business to business * B2C business to consumer Click and mortar: relies on offline asset * Pure play model: purely net based Failure and key of success Odds of survival of different business models compared| E-tail vs direct sales | 0. 93:1| Portal vs direct sales| 0. 97:1| Marktplace vs direct sales| 1. 30:1| Pay vs free| 0. 80:1| Clicks/mortar vs pure Net | 11:01| * E-tail and portal si tes are slightly less likely to survive than direct sales sites * Marketplace model are likely to survive that direct sales sites * Free sites are a little more likely to survive than pay sites * Clicks and mortar are 11 times more likely than pure Internet sites.Observation : * Firm that are part of group have a strategic advantages as brands, customers and suppliers relationship and cash * E-models are flexible and they enable rapid growth. Why some company in the same market will get success and some are not? * Logistic strategies – Case of eVineyards and Wine. com: the first decides to set up own retails store in each location generating a quicker and more reliable service. The second decided to outsource by relying on retail partners in various location, but it generated longer delivery times and out-of-stock problems Channel conflict: some firms have to cease trading via the Net owing to conflicts with existing channel partners (Starbucks, Levi Strauss, Reebok) * Free a nd pay web sites: the mass of users is attracted when the service is free * Lack of customer benefits is a common cause for the failure of the company * Network externalities: some firms focus on creating an high numbers of user, reeling in a large enough user base to make it attractive for the other users to join (eBay) * Level of utility and value added: to achieve a high target market penetration it may be necessary to be innovative (Priceline)What to take from it? * Each model raises particular issues * There is not a â€Å"perfect model† * Key factor is understanding and managing the particular problem inherent in their model * The chances to be successful are much higher when the firm is a part of a larger group Critique * It's a bit old. * It does not tell us , how is perfect business model look like? Questions for class * Is necessary to have a business model? * What are the key drivers of success in the business model? * How will these change in the future?